How is the age of Mount Everest determined?

How is the age of Mount Everest determined?

Determining the Age of Mount Everest: A Detailed Examination

For many generations, Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world, has served as an emblem of exploration, adventure, and the human spirit’s relentless pursuit of the unknown. But beyond the exploits of brave mountaineers attempting to scale its towering heights, a burning question remains: just how old is Mount Everest, and how was its age determined?

Formation of the Himalayan Range

Mount Everest sits within the sprawling Himalayan Range, which extends across several countries in Asia, including Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and India. To understand the age of Mount Everest, we must first delve into the formation of this majestic mountain range.

Geologists believe that the Himalayan Range began to form about 50 million years ago due to tectonic activities. The two primary continental plates involved were the Eurasian Plate and the Indian Plate, with the latter driving northwards towards the former. Their collision didn’t result in destruction – instead, it birthed the highest mountains on the planet.

The Birth of Everest

The age of Mount Everest is thus closely tied to the age of the Himalayan range. When the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate, immense pressure and heat caused rocks to be displaced upwards, leading to the creation of the Himalayas and, eventually, Mount Everest.

Given this formation process, scientists estimate that Mount Everest is approximately 60 million years old, highlighting its ancient origins and significant geological history. This estimation depends on sediment and rock samples collected from the peak and its surrounding areas, as well as advanced geological dating techniques.

Dating Techniques Used

An array of dating techniques have been employed to estimate the age of Mount Everest. These primarily comprise radiometric dating methods such as Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) dating and Argon-Argon (Ar-Ar) dating, which are based on the decay rates of radioactive isotopes found in rock and mineral samples.

For example, U-Pb dating involves studying zircon crystals embedded in rocks. As uranium slowly decays into lead over time, by measuring the ratio of uranium to lead in these crystals, scientists can determine the rock’s age.

Contingencies and Refinements

While the age of Mount Everest is broadly agreed upon in the scientific community, it’s crucial to recognize the estimations’ inherent uncertainty and subjectivity. These estimates are continually challenged and refined with advancing technology and research methodologies.

Furthermore, Mount Everest is not a static formation – it is continuously evolving due to geological forces. Interestingly, it’s growing taller each year due to the continuing movement and collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates.

The Future of Everest

Predicting what the future has in store for Mount Everest is a challenging task. However, one can safely assume that as long as the tectonic forces are at work, the ‘Goddess Mother of the World,’ as it is reverently referred to by the Tibetans, will continue its majestic reign, alluring climbers, researchers, and mountain enthusiasts from around the globe.


1. How old is Mount Everest?

Mount Everest is approximately 60 million years old. This age is estimated based on the believed timeline of the Himalayan Range’s formation.

2. How was the age of Mount Everest determined?

The age of Mount Everest was determined through geological dating techniques such as U-Pb and Ar-Ar dating, which utilize decay rates of radioactive isotopes in rock and mineral samples.

3. Is Mount Everest still growing?

Yes, Mount Everest is still growing. The continued collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates causes Mount Everest to grow taller by approximately two centimeters per year.

4. Can the age of Mount Everest change with new research?

Yes, ongoing research and the application of newer, more accurate dating methods may result in modifying the estimated age of Mount Everest in the future.

5. What makes Everest different from other mountains?

Beyond being the highest peak globally, Mount Everest holds an extraordinary geological significance due to its unique formation, ancient age, and ongoing growth triggered by tectonic activities.